All humans have a CD39 gene. But some have a version of the gene linked to lower CD39 levels. Friedman and colleagues identified a genetic marker for low CD39 production. They then looked for this marker in 1,748 patients with Crohn's disease and in 2,936 people without IBD.
They found that the genetic marker was significantly more common in people with Crohn's disease. Moreover, people without IBD were more likely to carry two copies of the high-CD39 gene, while those with Crohn's disease were more likely to carry two copies of the low-CD39 gene.
Genetics are not destiny. Not everyone with the low-CD39 gene has or will have IBD. Even having two copies of the gene only increases a person's risk of Crohn's disease by 27%.
But since about 40% of whites of European ancestry carry at least one copy of the gene, its effects across the entire population should be quite large.
Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Monday, September 28, 2009
There's also the argument that the pennies we're saving on each burger are being spent in our hospitals. A 2005 study out of Tufts University estimated that antibiotic-resistant infections add $50 billion to the annual cost of American health care. On the other side of the coin, a National Academy of Sciences study found that eliminating non-therapeutic antibiotics from animals would cost only about $5 to $10 per person per year. I'd pay that for a lower risk of super-staphylococcus.
Dr. Scott’s results offer the first suggestions that T cells
Small lymph cells created in the thymus which orchestrate the immune system\'s response to infected or malignant cells. Also known as T lymphocytes. T cells in the immune systems of type 1 diabetics are also more likely to have adverse immune reactions to wheat. His results also suggest that such over-reaction is tied to genes associated with type 1 diabetes.
According to Dr. Scott, the research suggests that "people with certain genes may be more likely to develop an over-reaction to wheat and possibly other foods in the gut and this may tip the balance with the immune system and make the body more likely to develop other immune problems, such as type 1 diabetes.”
Dr. Scott adds that the immune system has to find "the perfect balance to defend the body against foreign invaders without hurting itself or over-reacting to the environment and this can be particularly challenging in the gut, where there is an abundance of food and bacteria.”
In side comments that accompany the paper, diabetes expert Dr. Mikael Knip of Finland suggest that the team's results "add to the accumulating concept that the gut is an active player in the diabetes disease process.”
Although a causal link between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Crohn's disease has not been proved, previous studies suggest that the potential routes of human exposure to MAP should be investigated. We conducted a systematic review of literature concerning the likelihood of contamination of food products with MAP and the likely changes in the quantity of MAP in dairy and meat products along their respective production chains. Relevant data were extracted from 65 research papers and synthesized qualitatively. Although estimates of the prevalence of Johne's disease are scarce, particularly for non-dairy herds, the available data suggest that the likelihood of contamination of raw milk with MAP in most studied regions is substantial. The presence of MAP in raw and pasteurized milk has been the subject of several studies which show that pasteurized milk is not always MAP-free and that the effectiveness of pasteurization in inactivating MAP depends on the initial concentration of the agent in raw milk. The most recent studies indicated that beef can be contaminated with MAP via dissemination of the pathogen in the tissues of infected animals. Currently available data suggests that the likelihood of dairy and meat products being contaminated with MAP on retail sale should not be ignored.
Wednesday, September 23, 2009
Despite the documented presence of MAP in tap water and its probable growth on tap water pipes, clusters of Crohn's disease have not previously been described in relationship to tap water pipes supplying patients' homes. This report describes three unrelated individuals who lived on the same block along a street in a midwestern American city and developed Crohn's disease within four years of each other in the 1960's. A common tap water pipe supplied their homes. This is the first reported cluster of Crohn's disease possibly linked to fully treated drinking water, and is consistent with previously reported clusters of Crohn's disease linked to an infectious microorganism in water.
Saturday, September 12, 2009
Plan to eat about 6 meals daily, and eat about 500 calories a day more than usual. Sugary products like milkshakes (which could be made with skim milk and low-fat ice cream), jellies, jams, cakes and cookies can accomplish that goal easily, short-term.
Eating a balanced diet and managing weight long-term should be done thoughtfully. You don’t want to only gain fat and no muscle. Any kind of SAFE dieting program suggests eating healthy foods while exercising, to keep the body at an ideal weight while building muscle.
Know your recommended weight for your height and body type. The average 165-pound man, between 19 to 24 years old, needs 3000 calories a day to maintain his weight. But, as we age, we need fewer calories, so that same man will only require 2700 calories daily from the age of 25 to 49. And even less beyond that.
An average woman, ages 19 to 24, will need 2100 calories daily to maintain a weight of 127 pounds. As she ages, up to 49, she will only need 1900 calories.
Friday, September 11, 2009
Thursday, September 10, 2009
Wednesday, September 9, 2009
Although these results do not provide a clear path to treatment, “the potential role of persistent pathogens in autoimmune disease mandates reconsideration of the use of corticosteroids as a first-line treatment for many autoimmune diseases. Corticosteroids effectively reduce the ability of the immune system to respond to pathogens, including persistent microbiota, which is counterproductive to recovery.”
Saturday, September 5, 2009
Rifaximin (Xifaxan) is currently being studied for use in treating severe Crohn’s disease. This drug, manufactured by Salix Pharmaceuticals, is an antibiotic currently approved for use in traveler’s diarrhea. Rifaximin is not absorbed into the bloodstream like other antibiotics, but instead affects the digestive tract directly. The theory is that intestinal bacteria may have a connection to the inflammation in Crohn’s disease, and an antibiotic may be effective if it kills these bacteria.In a 16-week study of rifaximin, 78 percent of the patients with Crohn’s disease experienced an improvement in their disease, and 59 percent went into remission.This drug is also being studied for use in treating pouchitis, a complication that can occur after j-pouch surgery. In one study, 11 patients for whom other therapies had failed received either 400 mg of rifaximin twice a day or 200 mg three times a day -- both groups showed improvement.
Xifaxan for Crohn's I take this med for Crohn's disease, my doc is trying it although it isn't a "recognized" Crohn's drug yet. I take 2-200mg pills twice a day. It is very easy to take, coated tablets do not taste bad although they are on the larger side. I do not feel nauseous on them or anything, no side effects at all. Can be taken with or without food. After 24 hrs on this (two doses) I had my first solid "BM" in a very long time, it worked like a charm. It continued to work for 4-5 days when I started getting BMs more frequently and less solid. I realized that this is probably killing off the good bacteria so I started supplementing with a several-strain probiotic which has helped (I take the probiotics between the doses of Xifaxan, not at the same time which would be useless).One huge drawback of this medicine is the cost. My insurance has told me they won't cover it, so I am in the process of appealing that and hopefully they will cover it because a one month's supply costs $1100.00. Nope I'm not kidding. There is no generic.Overall I think it has done me some good and hopefully my results will continue to be positive. Looking forward to reading about other people's experiences with this drug.**Update 6/26/05I have continued taking this drug along with Boswellia serrata capsules, probiotics, and a multivitamin and as of 2 days ago I was officially in remission! I am very pleased with the results and would encourage others to try it. Please read my rating on boswellia too because I truly believe that boswellia had a big impact on my remission as well as this antibiotic. Also, my insurance did eventually cover the entire cost of this medicine but my dr had to send a letter before they would do it.
I was diagnosed with Crohn's disease in 2002. Since then I have tried just about everything to cure myself of this disease. Through my journey I have discovered that the Specific Carb Diet combined with a course of Xifaxan and high quality six strain probiotics (powder form) from customprobiotics.com has put me very close to remission. The first few days in Xifaxan caused severe painful bloating (die off of the bad bacteria) and then I was ok. You must stay way from bad carbs (ie. sugar, bread, cereal) and dairy if you want to get well.
Increased Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease After Salmonella or Campylobacter Gastroenteritis: A Population-Based Study (Abstract #80)
Researchers in Denmark have discovered a link between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and an initial bacterial infection with either salmonella or campylobacter gastroenteritis, an important step in understanding the development of IBD that may help explain the increasing incidence of IBD over the past decade.
Denmark’s system of tracking its citizens with individual identification numbers allowed researchers to examine patient interaction with the health-care system over a 15 year period. Investigators examined how many patients in a control group would develop IBD and compared them with those who have been exposed to bacteria in the past. They found that over 15 years, three times as many patients who had been exposed to bacteria later developed IBD as those who had not been exposed.
“This is the first time we are able to make such a clear association with an initial exposure to bacteria and subsequent development of IBD in the long term,” said Nielsen Henrik, MD, professor of infectious diseases at Aalborg Hospital in Denmark. “Our research has important implications for food safety and disease prevention. If we can reduce and prevent the spread of food bacteria and infections, we may reduce or even largely eliminate IBD in the long term.”
Dr. Nielsen is hopeful that further research will go beyond the association between bacteria exposure and IBD established in his study and attempt to prove causality by studying in detail the biology of individual patients.
Scotland Has High Incidence of Pediatric IBDMonday July 13, 2009Researchers in Scotland are puzzled by the dramatic increase of pediatric cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in recent years. IBD is increasing all over Europe, but the 4-fold increase in Crohn's disease in Scotland has been the most dramatic. Scottish researchers are currently recruiting for a new study to determine what may be causing the rise in IBD cases. The research will focus on the role bacteria may play in the onset of IBD. The BISCUIT (Bacteria in Inflammatory bowel disease in Scottish Children Undergoing Investigation before Treatment) Study is underway at the Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital, with plans to expand to hospitals in Dundee, Edinburgh, and Glasgow.
Increased Rate of IBD in Ontario ChildrenMonday August 10, 2009
A new population-based study has shown that the rate of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children in Ontario, Canada is increasing. The rate of IBD in children under the age of 18 increased from 42.1 per 100,000 in 1994 to 56.3 per 100,000 in 2005. The most striking increases occurred in preschool and school-aged children. The rates in pre-teens and teenagers showed no significant change. The authors stress that even at the increased rate, IBD is still considered rare in children.
It's already known that Canada has a very high rate of IBD, and especially pediatric IBD. The authors of this study indicate that the high immigration rates from south Asia to Ontario may be partly responsible. Research has shown that Asian immigrants to Ontario have a higher risk of developing IBD. The theory is that being exposed to the Western environment increases the likelihood of developing IBD.
O Canada! Why So Much IBD?Monday November 20, 2006Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known to be a “western” disease. In other words, it largely affects people who live in western societies. Canada appears to be a hotbed for IBD. Crohn’s disease appears to be particularly prevalent, with 13.4 per 100,000 people in Canada having the disease. In the United States, about 10 people per 100,000 have IBD. An estimated 0.5% of all Canadians have one of the two major forms of IBD. What can explain this?
The theory is that it’s the cold. The cold temperatures create a “sterile” environment which is inhospitable to bacteria. It is thought that when children are raised in an environment where they are exposed to too few bacteria, the risk of IBD is higher. Low exposure to bacteria can also occur in “too hygienic” conditions as well as cold climates.
The authors of the study published in American Journal of Gastroenterology that reported these findings indicate that hygiene and other factors may influence the development of IBD. They stress, however, that the exact cause(s) of IBD are not yet clear.
The Changing Pattern of Crohn’s Disease Incidence According to Age in Northern France: A Constant Increase in the 0-19 Years Age Group (Abstract #114)
A population-based study of residents in northern France finds that the incidence of Crohn’s disease (CD) is on the rise, most dramatically among young people less than 19 years of age. The findings raise a number of questions about the likely causes of the increase, which the investigators say could be related to environmental factors.
Investigators from the EPIMAD registry in France tracked rates of CD among nearly six million patients in northern France between 1988 and 2005. They found that the incidence of CD among all patients increased 20.7 percent but that rates had stabilized 10 years into the study. Among young people less than 19 years of age however, the incidence of CD increased linearly by 48.5 percent.
The cause of the increased incidence of CD among young people is unknown, but investigators say aggravating factors like environmental pollution and changes in diet or smoking habits could be culprits.
“Since we now know that CD disproportionately affects young people, future studies to uncover its cause should focus on this age group,” said Guillaume Savoye, MD, EPIMAD registry and department of gastroenterology, University Hospital, Rouen, France.
Myoconda®, the Company’s therapy for the treatment of Crohn’s Disease is a combination of three registered antibiotics - rifabutin, clarithromycin and clofazimine. These three drugs are widely marketed world-wide for the treatment of mycobacterial and other infections. Myoconda® presents these three compounds in a specific patented combination.
Myoconda® is based on the proposition that Crohn’s Disease is caused by infection. Prof. Borody has long been at the forefront of this approach, which is gaining increasing acceptance among gastrointestinal specialists worldwide. Prof. Borody has published significant data demonstrating that patients treated with Myoconda®’s antibiotic combination experience long-term remission of clinical symptoms and inflammation, some for up to nine years.The results of a Phase II clinical trial of Myoconda®, conducted at the Centre for Digestive Diseases (CDD), were published in 2002. This was followed up with a full retrospective analysis of all CDD Crohn’s patients treated for at least six months with anti-MAP therapy. This analysis of 52 patients demonstrated a remission rate of 65% with a clinical response of almost 95%. These results exceed those of any Crohn’s therapy on the market by major margins.
The microorganism, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, has been established in the veterinary literature to be the cause for Johne's disease, a disease causing colitis in cattle, sheep, and subhuman primate species. This disease resembles, clinically, Crohn’s disease in humans and acts very much the same. Studies in England and in Wales have shown the presence of mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk and water supplies. It is known that infected cows secrete this bacteria in milk and hence, milk borne infection appears to be theoretically possible.
It is thought that the Mycobacteria make their way into the body’s system via cows’ milk and other dairy products. In cattle it can cause an illness called Johne's disease - a wasting, diarrhoeal condition. Until now, however, it has been unclear how this bacterium could trigger intestinal inflammation in humans.
Professor Jon Rhodes, from the University’s School of Clinical Sciences, explains: “Mycobacterium paratuberculosis has been found within Crohn’s disease tissue but there has been much controversy concerning its role in the disease. We have now shown that these Mycobacteria release a complex molecule containing a sugar, called mannose. This molecule prevents a type of white blood cells, called macrophages, from killing internalised E.Coli.”
Scientists have previously shown that people with Crohn’s disease have increased numbers of a ‘sticky’ type of E.coli and weakened ability to fight off intestinal bacteria. The suppressive effect of the Mycobacterial molecule on this type of white blood cell suggests it is a likely mechanism for weakening the body’s defence against the bacteria.
Professor Rhodes added: "We also found that this bacterium is a likely trigger for a circulating antibody protein (ASCA) that is found in about two thirds of patients with Crohn's disease, suggesting that these people may have been infected by the Mycobacterium."
As part of his research, Dr. Rioux is focusing on the MAP bacteria. He believes it's plausible the bacteria may be a trigger for Crohn's disease. A recent study showed it was present in the intestines of some Crohn's patients."It found there was a significant association, finding this mycobacterium in Crohn's patients versus those who do not have Crohn's disease...we can see the footprints of this organism associated with Crohn's disease, but we can't really prove it's at the scene of the crime so to speak," adds Dr. Rioux.The Dairy Farmers of Canada says a Guelph, Ontario study in 2002 found the bacteria in Ontario milk, though it wasn't alive. Yet a 2005 study in the United States did find live bacteria in almost 3% of retail milk sampled."It can survive pasteurization in a limited number of samples, and only in low numbers, so that would not explain the high numbers of Crohn's disease patients we have in the developed world at all," says Barkema.The Food Directorate of Health Canada calls MAP an "emerging organism of concern." At a recent meeting in Ottawa, it called for more research and testing of food products, to see just how often MAP is found in the products we consume.